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Der Semeru wurde im August 2004 erklommen, Informationen in deutsch gibt's weiter unten.

Doubleclick blue framed pictures for  enlargement

Semeru Photo

Blick von Südwesten. Altes Bild!

Seit einigen Jahren ist durch einen Abgang der Krater an der südlichen Flanke weit geöffnet.

Country:

Indonesia

Subregion Name:

Indonesia - Java

Volcano Type:

Stratovolcano

Volcano Status:

Historical

Last Eruption:

2004 (continuing)

Summit Elevation:

3676 m

Latitude:

8.108°S

Longitude:

112.92°E

Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967.

The picture below shows the  open  south flank of the crater

Warning

The picture above is taken from the eastern side of the crater. It is not recommended to go too far to the crater rim (especially not as far as I when I took this picture) due to sometimes heavy stonefalls in this area. The eruptions do not follow any  100%-rules and several heavy eruptions  with heavy rockfall may occur without any warning. Even if it is likely that after a heavy eruption there is a longer (20 to 40 min) calm periode with only small eruptions, we had 4 heavy eruptions  with breaks of not more than 5 minutes after each other during our last visit and all of these eruptions would have been extremely dangerous for any person closer than 100m to the crater rim due to heavy rockfalls.

 

 eruption pictures below and above from H-J. Knoblauch, 08/2003 (www.TOBA-Consulting.de)

Semeru, a stratovolcano, has erupted at least 55 times since 1818. The eruptions are commonly moderate to moderately large (VEI=2-3) and explosive. This photo, taken November 4, 1982, shows a small cloud associated with a Strombolian eruption.

 

A series of pictures during one eruption

(view from the safe top of Gunung Mahameru approx. 300 m away from the rim 09.08.2004)

 

Some of the eruptions produced pyroclastic flows and/or lava flows. Ten of these eruptions have been fatal. Mudflows and secondary mudflows have been the most dangerous, killing nearly 600 people during the 1909 and 1981 eruptions. The most recent eruption of Semeru began in 1967 and has continued to the present. Vulcanian-type eruptions are common at Semeru and the generated pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and domes. Nearly 500 people have been killed by the current eruption. In August of 1994, explosions were occurring at intervals of 15-20 minutes. In February of 1995, pyroclastic avalanches travelled up to 0.6 mile (1 km) from the summit. Pyroclastic flows and lava avalanches were also reported in July, 1995.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Me on the top of Semeru ( Mahameru) while filming a medium eruption, August 2004

Semeru (or Semeroe, Smeroe, Smiru) volcano is situated in Malang dan Lumajang region, East Java. The summit of Mt. Semeru is Mahameru
(+ 3676 m asl) which is located at 08°06'30" south latitude and 112°55' east longitude and is the highest peak in Java. In the southern part of the summit grows the young active crater which has been erupting since the nineteenth century, namely Jonggring Seloko crater. Small vulcanian explosions have occurred at intervals of between 10 minutes to one hour. These have been the characteristic of Mt. Semeru since 1967.
The flank of Semeru streching eastward, reaches the plain of Lumajang and Pasirian. Westward, the flanks spread over the plain of Malang and Turen. Northward, the flank is bounded by Jambangan complex that consists of : Ayek-ayek, Ranu Kumbolo and Mt.Kepolo. Southward, the foot of Semeru is bounded by the southern mountain (Tertiary mountain range).  The flank of Semeru streching eastward, reaches the plain of Lumajang and Pasirian. Westward, the flanks spread over the plain of Malang and Turen. Northward, the flank is bounded by Jambangan complex that consists of : Ayek-ayek, Ranu Kumbolo and Mt.Kepolo. Southward, the foot of Semeru is bounded by the southern mountain (Tertiary mountain range).

The irregular shaped of its summit is caused by frequent shifting of its eruption center in northwest - southeast direction. The present activity center is at Jonggring Seloko, a crater that appears in the southeast part of Mahameru, and it is separated by a narrow saddle. Cauli flower like eruption column is always erupted through its crater.  

The eruption history of Semeru was recorded since the 19th century, started in 1818. The eruption occurs frequently, at least once a year. Since the 1818 until now there have been 82 times of eruptions.
Normally the eruption column reaches a height of 300-500 m above the crater. The eruption cloud is usually blown away by the wind. Sometimes the color of eruption cloud varies from white or greyish and blackish depends on the ash content. At night, glowing clasts is often seen that the "volcano eruption type" is interupted by "strombolian eruption type". The ash cloud may reach a height of 4000 m above the crater, and then fall back around the crater and rolled down as far as 1500 m from the crater rim.

view from Camp Kalimati  (08/2004)

medium eruption shortly after sunset (9th of august 2004)

Big eruption is often followed by eruption generated pyroclastic flows. During active period or when the activity decreases lava flows may came out of the eruption vent, and lava tongue is formed. Because of the steep flank of Semeru, part of the lava front rolls down and glowing lava avalanches occurs, which is sometimes accompanied by"lava collapse generated pyroclastic flows" (nuee ardante). The increase activity of Semeru usually takes place in a short period of time, whereas the eruption phase takes place from several days to several months. The activity period is often interupted by rest period.

Weitere praktische Infos in Deutsch....

           

Um den Semeru zu bestiegen startet man am besten von Ranu Pani, einem kleinen Dorf am Rand zur Tenger Caldera aus. Ranu Pani erreicht man entweder über Cemorao Lawang wenn man vorher den Bromo besucht (von dort aus kann man sich einen Jeep-Trip für etwa 8 Euro einfach organisieren). Alternativ ist die Anreise über Malang-Tumpang-Gubug Klahkah auch möglich. In Ranu Pani ist  das Homestay von Pak Tasrip zu empfehlen, einem geschäftstüchtigem etwas in die Jahre gekommenen Herren. Ein wahres Original der Typ, eine abendliche Unterhaltung mit Ihm lohnt!!!!!!!. Es befindet sich an der  "Hauptstrasse" und ist mit dem Schild "vous pouvez manger et dormir ici" gekennzeichnet.  (Die Sprache passt schon, wir trafen am Semeru entweder auf Indonesier oder auf Franzosen).

Pak Tasrip organisiert auch Führer, Genehmigungsschreiben und Essen zu vernünftigen Preisen.

Preise 2004: Führer 18 Euro, Träger 11 Euro für 2 Tage, Unterkunft im Homestay ca. 2 Euro p.P. im DZ Abendessen (Reis mit Gemüse) ca. 1 Euro.

Von dort aus erreicht man in einer 2-Tages Tour den Semeru.  1. Tag am besten bis Camp Arcopodo auf etwa 2900 m. Dann am 2. Tag hoch zum Gipfel und wieder zurück. Auch möglich ist es, am ersten Tag bis zum niedrigeren Camp Kalimati (2600m) zu gehen, aber dann ist der Aufstieg auf dem steilen Aschekegel am nächsten morgen härter. Ich empfehle Camp Arcopodo) ......siehe mein Reisebericht   Rainer Albiez  Michael Joachim

Ich, Bernd , und Bernds neuer Freund am Abend vor dem Aufstieg ( v.l.n.r.) Tasrip's Unterkunft in Ranu Pani PAK TASRIP

 

See mit 1. Camp Ranu Kumbolo

 

Camp Kalimati am Fuße des Semeru

Indonesische Studenten

Unser Zelt im Waldcamp Arcopodo

am Lagerfeuer mit den indones. Studenten

Sonnenaufgang mit Schatten des Bergs Die indonesischen Hobbybergsteiger waren von unserer Fahne begeistert ...vor allem der 1,5 m hohe und ca. 2 kg schwere Fahnenmast (Baumstamm) war ziemlich schwer hochzutragen...

Verschiedene Eruptionen am Semeru  (09. August 2004)

 

Abfolge einer Eruption

(Zeitabstand zwischen den Bildern < 1 sek)

Blick von Südosten auf den Semeru

(Bild von K. Merck, www.volcanoes-of-the-world.de.vu)